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Manage the size of SQL Server Transaction Logs

MSSQLTips author Tim Ford By:   |   Read Comments (5)   |   Related Tips: More > Database Administration

Problem
I've mentioned on a number of occasions I support an insane (I-N-S-A-N-E) number of databases and SQL Server instances.  Doing so makes it difficult to pay as much attention to all aspects of your environment as you may need. 

In a perfect situation the DBA sizes their transaction log files and database files appropriately, monitors activity and growth, and makes sure all their backups always succeed.  However, most of us don't live in that perfect world.  Whether it be funding, manpower, hardware constraints or simple lack of being able to control all aspects of space and time, we're only human and can only do so much.  That is why I fight the battles that need fighting and micromanage those critical databases that require that level of diligence.  The remaining 80% of my databases fall into the outliers of diligence.  Once again, the 80/20 rule is in effect: 80% of my time is spent on maintaining 20% of my databases.  It is because of that I build queries and constructs similar to what I am going to demonstrate today. 

It's a tool I call LogWatch.  It's a stored procedure that resides in a dedicated database on all my Microsoft SQL Server instances that I use to host all those scripts that I'd love to drop into the master database.  Scripts for listing file sizes for all data and log files on my instance, custom-built index maintenance scripts, and backup scripts that run in-lieu of relying on maintenance plans just to name a few.  Those of you who have followed my articles here on MSSQLTips.com will remember this as my iDBA database.  The following is a script I use to keep a handle on those potentially out of control transaction logs.

Solution
The queries and temporary objects that are used for this script rely upon components in a tip I published in late 2008 titled Determine Free Space, Consumed Space and Total Space Allocated for Microsoft SQL Server Databases.  In it I demonstrated how you could overcome the various random methodologies that exist in Microsoft SQL Server for returning log size, file size, and space consumed metrics by creating your own stored procedure to return all that information at once. 

What LogWatch does instead is to tap into that same metadata, but drill into it further to isolate those cases where your transaction logs appear to have spun out of control in relation to the sizing of the data file.  We've all seen this behavior before, and it happens for various reasons.  You run across a database hosted on one of your instances and the log file is 10GB and the data file is only 5GB.  (I'm not saying this has happened to me, but let's say I have a friend it's happened to.)  At any rate you have a transaction log that appears to be grossly oversized.  Why does this happen?  A few reason are:

  • Inadequate backup practices.  Perhaps the database is highly transactional, running in Full recovery model, but logs are not being backed up with a proper frequency to match the activity.
  • A database backup may have been skipped or failed due to issues with disk space, failure in an earlier step in the SQL Agent job running the backup, or other issue impacting successful backup processing.
  • Poorly designed database that does not adequately commit transactions in the T/SQL code, thereby resulting in massive amounts of activity being logged before being written to the data file(s).
  • Improper assignment of a recovery model for the database.

The usp_LogWatch stored procedure utilizes a favorite undocumented stored procedure of mine, sp_MSforeachdb to query each database on the instance, collecting sizing information for each database's file structure.  It then returns results where the cumulative sizes for each database's log file is greater than 50% of the total size of the data files for that database.  It only returns results where the log file is greater than 500MB.  These thresholds are easily adjusted in the WHERE clause that returns results to the users and are only pertinent for my environment.  Anything that falls outside of those limits are small fish that I really do not waste time in reviewing.  Please note that in my environment I utilize a dedicated database for scripts of this nature.  I also have a separate schema dependent upon function within this database.  I utilize a schema called MetaBOT for this and similar scripts.  I also have schemas called StatsBOT, IndexBOT, and BackupBOT.  I'm pretty sure you can figure out why.  If you do not make use of schemas you can simply change the code in the script below to utilize the dbo schema by replacing all references to MetaBOT with dbo.  Let's take a look at the code below. 

CREATE PROCEDURE [MetaBOT].[usp_LogWatch] AS 
DECLARE @SQL VARCHAR(5000) 
--Clean up temp objects if not properly done so previously 
IF EXISTS (SELECT NAME FROM tempdb..sysobjects WHERE NAME = '#usp_LogWatch_Results') 
   BEGIN 
       DROP TABLE #usp_LogWatch_Results 
   END 
--Create temporary table to store results 
CREATE TABLE #usp_LogWatch_Results ([Database Name] sysname, [File Type] VARCHAR(4), [Total Size in Mb] INT) 
--Create SQL script to run against all databases on the instance 
SELECT @SQL = 
'USE [?] 
INSERT INTO #usp_LogWatch_Results([Database Name], [File Type], [Total Size in Mb]) 
SELECT DB_NAME(), [File Type] = 
CASE type 
WHEN 0 THEN ''Data''' 
+ 
           'WHEN 1 THEN ''Log''' 
+ 
       'END, 
[Total Size in Mb] = 
CASE ceiling([size]/128) 
WHEN 0 THEN 1 
ELSE ceiling([size]/128) 
END 
FROM sys.database_files 
'
--Run the command against each database 
EXEC sp_MSforeachdb @SQL 
SELECT D.[Database Name], D.[Total Data File Size In Mb], L.[Total Log File Size In Mb], 
        CAST(CAST(L.[Total Log File Size In Mb] AS decimal(8,1))/CAST(D.[Total Data File Size In Mb] 
             AS decimal(8,1)) AS decimal(4,2)) AS [Log::Data Ratio] 
FROM 
        ( 
        SELECT [Database Name], [File Type], SUM([Total Size in Mb]) AS [Total Data File Size In Mb] 
        FROM #usp_LogWatch_Results 
        WHERE [File Type] = 'Data' 
        GROUP BY [Database Name], [File Type] 
        ) AS D INNER JOIN 
        ( 
        SELECT [Database Name], [File Type], SUM([Total Size in Mb]) AS [Total Log File Size In Mb] 
        FROM #usp_LogWatch_Results 
        WHERE [File Type] = 'Log' 
        GROUP BY [Database Name], [File Type] 
        ) AS L ON D.[Database Name] = L.[Database Name] 
WHERE L.[Total Log File Size In Mb] > 500 AND 
        CAST(CAST(L.[Total Log File Size In Mb] AS decimal(8,1))/CAST(D.[Total Data File Size In Mb] 
             AS decimal(8,1)) AS decimal(4,2)) > 0.5 
ORDER BY CAST(CAST(L.[Total Log File Size In Mb] AS decimal(8,1))/CAST(D.[Total Data File Size In Mb] 
             AS decimal(8,1)) AS decimal(4,2)) DESC, 
        L.[Total Log File Size In Mb] DESC 
--Clean up your temporary objects 
DROP TABLE #usp_LogWatch_Results 


When created and run the results look something like this (database names changed to protect the innocent.)

The results are returned by database, total size of all associated data files, cumulative log file sizing, and a ratio that is calculated from dividing log file size by data file size. 

Therefore, looking at the first record, you'll see that perhaps something is out of balance.  This would definitely warrant investigation.  Conversely, looking at the last record, the sizing may be acceptable, depending on the database behavior.  This is why it is so important to have an understanding of the total environment you support, even if you do not have the resources to provide uniform support for the entire SQL Server domain.  Not all returned results necessarily mean something is wrong.  The important thing is that even though I do not have as much time as I need to address all my databases with the same attention I give to the 20% that consume the 80% of my time, I do need to have a handle on what is going on in my SQL Server environment and understand when the results look right or not.

Next Steps



Last Update: 2/9/2009


About the author
MSSQLTips author Tim Ford
Tim Ford is a Senior Database Administrator and SQL Server MVP. He has been working with SQL Server since 1999.

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Comments and Feedback:
Monday, February 09, 2009 - 11:42:58 AM - griffin43 Read The Tip

So, why don't you put the stored procedure into master.

I have my favorites in there all prefixed with sp_dba_... and since they are on multiple servers I always have lots of backups.

I don't see the problem?

It seems less problematic than using undocumented stored procedures.

 


Tuesday, February 10, 2009 - 7:12:06 AM - timmer26 Read The Tip

I prefer to keep master, and all other system databases in their pristine state.  I use the iDBA database that I have on each of my SQL instances for all of my custom scripts, metadata repositories, etc. rather than tainting system database with user data or objects, which is exactly what this is.  This has nothing to do with documented or un-documented stored procedures.  Just because you place a stored procedure in master does not make it documented. 

I don't recommend using "sp_" for a prefix for any user-created objects.  Even though you follow that with "dba_" SQL Server will still treat any object with an "sp_" prefix differently than any other object.  If you still feel compelled to store user-created objects in the system databases then I stongly recommend using a different naming convention.

Thanks for reading, and interacting in the forums.


Tuesday, February 10, 2009 - 11:12:56 AM - griffin43 Read The Tip
Tim,The power of sp_ stored procedures in master can be abused, ignored, or used to good effect. A dba can benefit from writing and using these sp_ procedures because of their ability to execute in the current database context.  For example, I run sp_dba_reindex on all my databases to reindex tables that are fragmented.Im cant get comfortable having production servers dependent on undocumented procedures, including (sp_MSforeachdb).Thanks for listening.JohnS 

 


Wednesday, February 11, 2009 - 12:12:58 PM - steve.schneider Read The Tip

Very nice stored procedure!  If you don't take offense, i have modified your code to handle larger sizes & also to include the

  • recovery mode,  
  • Last Full backup,
  • LastLog backup

in the report...that makes less items for me to check manually.

 

alter PROCEDURE [usp_LogWatch] AS

DECLARE @SQL VARCHAR(5000)

--Clean up temp objects if not properly done so previously

IF EXISTS (SELECT NAME FROM tempdb..sysobjects WHERE NAME = '#usp_LogWatch_Results')

BEGIN

DROP TABLE #usp_LogWatch_Results

END

--Create temporary table to store results

CREATE TABLE #usp_LogWatch_Results ([Database Name] sysname, RecMode sql_variant, [File Type] VARCHAR(4), [Total Size in Mb] INT)

--Create SQL script to run against all databases on the instance

SELECT @SQL =

'USE [?]

INSERT INTO #usp_LogWatch_Results

([Database Name], RecMode, [File Type], [Total Size in Mb])

SELECT DB_NAME(),DATABASEPROPERTYEX(db_name(), ''Recovery''), [File Type] =

CASE type

WHEN 0 THEN ''Data'''

+

'WHEN 1 THEN ''Log'''

+ 'END,

[Total Size in Mb] =

CASE ceiling([size]/128)

WHEN 0 THEN 1

ELSE ceiling([size]/128)

END

FROM sys.database_files

'

--Run the command against each database

EXEC sp_MSforeachdb @SQL

SELECT D.[Database Name],

D.RecMode,

D.[Total Data File Size In Mb],

L.[Total Log File Size In Mb],

CAST(CAST(L.[Total Log File Size In Mb] AS decimal(12,1))/CAST(D.[Total Data File Size In Mb]

AS decimal(12,1)) AS decimal(12,2)) AS [Log::Data Ratio] ,

FullBck.Last_Backup as FullDbLastBackup,

Logs.Last_BAckup as LogLastBackup

FROM

(

SELECT [Database Name], RecMode,[File Type], SUM([Total Size in Mb]) AS [Total Data File Size In Mb]

FROM #usp_LogWatch_Results

WHERE [File Type] = 'Data'

GROUP BY [Database Name], [File Type] , recMode

) AS D INNER JOIN

(

SELECT [Database Name], [File Type], SUM([Total Size in Mb]) AS [Total Log File Size In Mb]

FROM #usp_LogWatch_Results

WHERE [File Type] = 'Log'

GROUP BY [Database Name], [File Type]

) AS L ON D.[Database Name] = L.[Database Name]

left join

(

SELECT Database_Name,

CONVERT( SmallDateTime , MAX(Backup_Finish_Date)) as Last_Backup,

DATEDIFF(d, MAX(Backup_Finish_Date), Getdate()) as Days_Since_Last

FROM MSDB.dbo.BackupSet

WHERE Type = 'l'

GROUP BY Database_Name

) as logs on logs.Database_name = L.[Database Name]

left join

(

SELECT Database_Name,

CONVERT( SmallDateTime , MAX(Backup_Finish_Date)) as Last_Backup,

DATEDIFF(d, MAX(Backup_Finish_Date), Getdate()) as Days_Since_Last

FROM MSDB.dbo.BackupSet

WHERE Type = 'd'

GROUP BY Database_Name

) Fullbck on fullbck.Database_Name = L.[Database Name]

 

WHERE L.[Total Log File Size In Mb] > 500 AND

CAST(CAST(L.[Total Log File Size In Mb] AS decimal(12,1))/CAST(D.[Total Data File Size In Mb]

AS decimal(12,1)) AS decimal(8,2)) > 0.5

ORDER BY CAST(CAST(L.[Total Log File Size In Mb] AS decimal(12,1))/CAST(D.[Total Data File Size In Mb]

AS decimal(12,1)) AS decimal(8,2)) DESC,

L.[Total Log File Size In Mb] DESC

--Clean up your temporary objects

DROP TABLE #usp_LogWatch_Results


Thursday, February 12, 2009 - 9:12:41 AM - Ozzie19 Read The Tip

Steve,

 Nice add - I would just maybe fiddle with the WHERE clause - my DBs are small and the log % was too so of course nothing displayed - so you didn't see anything.

 Doug



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