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SQL Server Security Audit (Part 2): Scripts to help you or where can you find more information

MSSQLTips author Svetlana Golovko By:   |   Read Comments (11)   |   Related Tips: More > Auditing and Compliance
Problem

The first article ("Part 1") listed some of the checks for the database security audit. In this tip we look at many different security settings and configuration settings that you should be aware of.  There are several scripts that you can run to know if there are any potential security issues on your servers.

Solution

The scripts listed below will help you configure several of the security options on SQL Server and also run some of the checks to see if there are potential issues.

Check SQL Server Audit level

This will check to see what your current login audit level is set to capture.

DECLARE @AuditLevel int
EXEC master.dbo.xp_instance_regread N'HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE', 
   N'Software\Microsoft\MSSQLServer\MSSQLServer', 
   N'AuditLevel', @AuditLevel OUTPUT
SELECT CASE WHEN @AuditLevel = 0 THEN 'None'
   WHEN @AuditLevel = 1 THEN 'Successful logins only'
   WHEN @AuditLevel = 2 THEN 'Failed logins only'
   WHEN @AuditLevel = 3 THEN 'Both failed and successful logins' 
   END AS [AuditLevel] 

Configure number of SQL Server logs

This script will change the setting so that you stored 48 SQL Server error log archives.  This will allow us to have a good amount of history from our error logs.

EXEC master.dbo.xp_instance_regwrite N'HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE', 
       N'Software\Microsoft\MSSQLServer\MSSQLServer', 
       N'NumErrorLogs', REG_DWORD, 48

Read this tip if you want to configure the number error log files using SQL Server Management Studio (SSMS). Refer to tip for more information about log files management and configuration.

Create alert, operator and notification for the security events

We will setup these components so when there is an issue we can be alerted by SQL Server.

Create operator:

EXEC msdb.dbo.sp_add_operator @name=N'NotifyDBA_Group', 
  @enabled=1, 
  @email_address=N'NotifyDBAs@company.com'

Create alert for severity 14 events (these are security related errors):

EXEC msdb.dbo.sp_add_alert @name = N'Sev. 14 Errors - Permissions', 
  @severity = 14, 
  @include_event_description_in = 1

Create notification:

EXEC msdb.dbo.sp_add_notification @alert_name = N'Sev. 14 Errors - Permissions', 
@operator_name = N'NotifyDBA_Group', @notification_method = 1

Use this tip if you prefer to configure alerts and operators using SSMS.

Find failed login events in SQL Server error log

This will allow us to search the SQL Server error log for failed logins.  This command below will search the active SQL Server error log.

EXEC master.dbo.xp_readerrorlog 0, 1, 'login failed', null, NULL, NULL, N'desc'

Refer to this tip if you want to learn more about xp_readerrorlog extended stored procedure and it's usage as well as how to read the archived SQL Server error logs.

Check that Builtin\Administrators group removed from sysadmins role

This command will check to see if the builtin administrator account has been removed.

SELECT r.name  as SrvRole, u.name  as LoginName  
FROM sys.server_role_members m JOIN
  sys.server_principals r ON m.role_principal_id = r.principal_id  JOIN
  sys.server_principals u ON m.member_principal_id = u.principal_id 
WHERE u.name = 'BUILTIN\Administrators'

Make sure you have read this tip before you remove BUILTIN\Administrators login from SQL Server.

Find members of the "Local Administrators" group on SQL Server

If for some reason you want to keep the BUILTIN\Administrators login you need to check who are the members of the "Local Administrators" group.

Note, that you will get results from the extended procedure below only if the BUILTIN\Administrators group exists as login on SQL Server.

EXEC master.sys.xp_logininfo 'BUILTIN\Administrators','members'

Find Sysadmins server role's members (and other server level roles)

This will show all logins and what server level roles each login has been assigned.

EXEC master.sys.sp_helpsrvrolemember

Refer to this tip for information about Server Roles Auditing using system views (including SQL Server 2012 user-defined server roles).

Find db_owner database role's members in each database

This will give you a list of database owners for each database.

EXEC master.sys.sp_MSforeachdb '
PRINT ''?''
EXEC [?].dbo.sp_helprolemember ''db_owner'''

Find logins mapped to the "dbo" user in each database

This will find all users that are mapped to the dbo schema.

EXEC master.sys.sp_MSforeachdb '
PRINT ''?''
EXEC [?].dbo.sp_helpuser ''dbo'''

Check password policies and expiration for the SQL logins

This will check whether the password policy is turn on or off.

SELECT name  FROM sys.sql_logins 
 WHERE  is_policy_checked=0 OR is_expiration_checked = 0

Refer to this tip for more information about the "Enforce password policy" and the "Enforce password expiration" properties of the SQL Server Logins. This is also covered in another tip here.

Check that Production and Test databases are segregated (on different SQL Servers)

This will look for the value of "Test" or "Dev" in all your database names.

SELECT name FROM master.sys.databases 
 WHERE name LIKE '%Test%' OR name LIKE '%Dev%'

Check that sample databases (AdventureWorks, Pubs etc.) are not present on Production SQL Servers

This will check to see if these sample databases are present on your server.

SELECT name FROM master.sys.databases 
 WHERE name IN ('pubs', 'Northwind') OR name LIKE 'Adventure Works%'

Verify that "sa" login has been renamed and/or disabled and has password policy/expiration enabled

This will check whether the sa password exists and if it does if the password policy is turned on for this login.

SELECT l.name, CASE WHEN l.name = 'sa' THEN 'NO' ELSE 'YES' END as Renamed,
  s.is_policy_checked, s.is_expiration_checked, l.is_disabled
FROM sys.server_principals AS l
 LEFT OUTER JOIN sys.sql_logins AS s ON s.principal_id = l.principal_id
WHERE l.sid = 0x01

Refer to this tip for the options to make "sa" login secure.

Check server configuration options

This will check different server configuration settings such as: allow updates, cross db ownership chaining, clr enabled, SQL Mail XPs, Database Mail XPs, xp_cmdshell and Ad Hoc Distributed Queries.

SELECT name, value_in_use FROM sys.configurations
 WHERE configuration_id IN (16391, 102, 400, 1562, 16386, 16385, 16390, 16393)

Configuration_id 16393 is to check if "Contained Databases Authentication" option is enabled on SQL Server 2012. There are some potential security threats associated with contained databases that DBAs have to understand. Read more here: Security Best Practices with Contained Databases.

Refer also to this tip to understand better the Cross Database Ownership Chaining feature.

CONNECT or other permissions granted to the "guest" user

This will list what permission the guest user has.

SET NOCOUNT ON
CREATE TABLE #guest_perms 
 ( db SYSNAME, class_desc SYSNAME, 
  permission_name SYSNAME, ObjectName SYSNAME NULL)
EXEC master.sys.sp_MSforeachdb
'INSERT INTO #guest_perms
 SELECT ''?'' as DBName, p.class_desc, p.permission_name, 
   OBJECT_NAME (major_id, DB_ID(''?'')) as ObjectName
 FROM [?].sys.database_permissions p JOIN [?].sys.database_principals l
  ON p.grantee_principal_id= l.principal_id 
 WHERE l.name = ''guest'' AND p.[state] = ''G'''
 
SELECT db AS DatabaseName, class_desc, permission_name, 
 CASE WHEN class_desc = 'DATABASE' THEN db ELSE ObjectName END as ObjectName, 
 CASE WHEN DB_ID(db) IN (1, 2, 4) AND permission_name = 'CONNECT' THEN 'Default' 
  ELSE 'Potential Problem!' END as CheckStatus
FROM #guest_perms
DROP TABLE #guest_perms

Guest user by default has CONNECT permissions to the master, msdb and tempdb databases. Any other permissions will be returned by this query as potential problem. Refer to this tip for more information about guest user account.

SQL Server Authentication mode

If this returns 0 the server uses both Windows and SQL Server security.  If the value is 1 it is only setup for Windows Authentication.

SELECT SERVERPROPERTY ('IsIntegratedSecurityOnly')

Check this tip for different ways to check the SQL Server Authentication mode.

SQL Server version

There are many different ways to find the SQL Server version. Here are some of them:

SELECT @@VERSION

SELECT SERVERPROPERTY('ProductVersion') AS ProductVersion,
 SERVERPROPERTY('ProductLevel') AS ProductLevel

The 'ProductLevel' property above will show Service Pack level as well (if it has been installed).

EXEC master.sys.xp_msver

Check this tip for other ways to check the SQL Server version.

Database users, permissions and application roles

This will give a list of permissions for each user.

-- list of the users
EXEC sys.sp_helpuser
-- database permissions
EXEC sys.sp_helprotect
-- roles membership
EXEC sys.sp_helprolemember
-- list of the database application roles
SELECT name FROM sys.database_principals WHERE type = 'A'

Refer to this tip for more information about permissions auditing.

Location of Data and Log files

Quickly find databases that use only one drive:

SET NOCOUNT ON
CREATE TABLE #db_drives (db SYSNAME, drive_count INT)
EXEC master.sys.sp_MSforeachdb
'INSERT INTO #db_drives
 SELECT ''?'' AS DBName, 
  COUNT (DISTINCT LEFT(physical_name, CHARINDEX( ''\'', physical_name,0)))
 FROM [?].sys.database_files'
  
SELECT db AS DatabaseName
 FROM #db_drives 
WHERE drive_count = 1 AND DB_ID(db) > 4
DROP TABLE #db_drives

Check data and log files drives for the current database ('DriveLetter' column in the query below):

SELECT name, type_desc, physical_name, 
 LEFT(physical_name, CHARINDEX( '\', physical_name,0)) AS DriveLetter
FROM sys.database_files

Check enabled Network Protocols

The query below will show if the Named Pipes protocol is enabled on SQL Server instance:

EXEC master.dbo.xp_instance_regread N'HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE',
  N'Software\Microsoft\MSSQLServer\MSSQLServer\SuperSocketNetLib\Np', 
  N'Enabled', 
  @NamedPipesEnabled OUTPUT
  
SELECT @NamedPipesEnabled AS NamedPipesEnabled

Refer to this tip for more information about network protocols used by SQL Server.

SQL Server Services Startup mode

The easiest way which will allow you as well to incorporate this check to your SQL scripts is to do this as described in tip:

SELECT * FROM sys.dm_server_services

Linked Servers and Linked Server Logins

This will provide a list of linked server and the logins used for linked servers.

-- list of remote/linked servers
SELECT * FROM sys.servers
-- linked server logins
EXEC master.sys.sp_helplinkedsrvlogin 

Find logins without permissions

This will find a list of logins that no permissions granted.  These logins if are not used could then be removed.

SET NOCOUNT ON
CREATE TABLE #all_users (db VARCHAR(70), sid VARBINARY(85), stat VARCHAR(50))
EXEC master.sys.sp_msforeachdb
'INSERT INTO #all_users  
 SELECT ''?'', CONVERT(varbinary(85), sid) , 
  CASE WHEN  r.role_principal_id IS NULL AND p.major_id IS NULL 
  THEN ''no_db_permissions''  ELSE ''db_user'' END
 FROM [?].sys.database_principals u LEFT JOIN [?].sys.database_permissions p 
   ON u.principal_id = p.grantee_principal_id  
   AND p.permission_name <> ''CONNECT''
  LEFT JOIN [?].sys.database_role_members r 
   ON u.principal_id = r.member_principal_id
  WHERE u.SID IS NOT NULL AND u.type_desc <> ''DATABASE_ROLE'''
IF EXISTS 
(SELECT l.name FROM sys.server_principals l LEFT JOIN sys.server_permissions p 
  ON l.principal_id = p.grantee_principal_id  
  AND p.permission_name <> 'CONNECT SQL'
 LEFT JOIN sys.server_role_members r 
  ON l.principal_id = r.member_principal_id
 LEFT JOIN #all_users u 
  ON l.sid= u.sid
 WHERE r.role_principal_id IS NULL  AND l.type_desc <> 'SERVER_ROLE' 
  AND p.major_id IS NULL
 )
BEGIN
 SELECT DISTINCT l.name LoginName, l.type_desc, l.is_disabled, 
  ISNULL(u.stat + ', but is user in ' + u.db  +' DB', 'no_db_users') db_perms, 
  CASE WHEN p.major_id IS NULL AND r.role_principal_id IS NULL  
  THEN 'no_srv_permissions' ELSE 'na' END srv_perms 
 FROM sys.server_principals l LEFT JOIN sys.server_permissions p 
   ON l.principal_id = p.grantee_principal_id  
   AND p.permission_name <> 'CONNECT SQL'
  LEFT JOIN sys.server_role_members r 
   ON l.principal_id = r.member_principal_id
   LEFT JOIN #all_users u 
   ON l.sid= u.sid
  WHERE  l.type_desc <> 'SERVER_ROLE' 
   AND ((u.db  IS NULL  AND p.major_id IS NULL 
     AND r.role_principal_id IS NULL )
   OR (u.stat = 'no_db_permissions' AND p.major_id IS NULL 
     AND r.role_principal_id IS NULL)) 
 ORDER BY 1, 4
END
DROP TABLE #all_users 

The list returned by this query contains logins that should be reviewed and most likely have to be disabled or deleted:

Review logins

The last login in the list above still has user account in master database, but this user does not have any permissions on the database. This login could be deleted as well (after user's account deleted from the master database).

Find broken database users on all databases (SQL logins mapping is broken)

These users are known as orphaned users because the associated link between the login and user is broken. Refer this tip for more information and how to fix these.

EXEC master.sys.sp_msforeachdb '
print ''?''
EXEC [?].dbo.sp_change_users_login ''report'''

Find orphaned users in all of the databases (no logins exist for the database users)

Make sure you ran the previous check and fixed SQL Server logins before running this check.

SET NOCOUNT ON
CREATE TABLE #orph_users (db SYSNAME, username SYSNAME, 
    type_desc VARCHAR(30),type VARCHAR(30))
EXEC master.sys.sp_msforeachdb  
'INSERT INTO #orph_users
 SELECT ''?'', u.name , u.type_desc, u.type
 FROM  [?].sys.database_principals u 
  LEFT JOIN  [?].sys.server_principals l ON u.sid = l.sid 
 WHERE l.sid IS NULL 
  AND u.type NOT IN (''A'', ''R'', ''C'') -- not a db./app. role or certificate
  AND u.principal_id > 4 -- not dbo, guest or INFORMATION_SCHEMA
  AND u.name NOT LIKE ''%DataCollector%'' 
  AND u.name NOT LIKE ''mdw%'' -- not internal users in msdb or MDW databases'
    
 SELECT * FROM #orph_users
 
 DROP TABLE #orph_users

Validate logins (identify orphaned Windows logins)

This check will show Windows logins that have been deleted from the server or Active Directory. Read more about this stored procedure in this tip.

EXEC master.sys.sp_validatelogins

Backups verification report

Check if a Full backup exists that is not older than 7 days, a Differential backup exists that is not older than 2 days or a Transaction Log backup exists that is not older than 1 day (you can change the number of days based on your requirements):

SELECT m.name AS DatabaseName, DATABASEPROPERTYEX(m.name, 'Recovery') AS RecoveryMode,
 CASE WHEN ISNULL(MAX(b.backup_finish_date), GETDATE()-10000) < GETDATE()-7 
    AND b.[type] = 'D' THEN 'Problem!' 
   WHEN ISNULL(MAX(b.backup_finish_date), GETDATE()-10000) < GETDATE()-2 
     AND b.[type] = 'I' THEN 'Problem!' 
   WHEN ISNULL(MAX(b.backup_finish_date), GETDATE()-10000) < GETDATE()-1 
     AND b.[type] = 'L' THEN 'Problem!' 
   ELSE 'OK' END AS BackupStatus,
    CASE WHEN b.[type] = 'D'  THEN 'Full' 
   WHEN b.[type] = 'I'  THEN 'Differential'
   WHEN b.[type] = 'L'  THEN 'Transaction Log'  END AS BackupType, 
 MAX(b.backup_finish_date) AS backup_finish_date
  FROM master.sys.databases m LEFT JOIN msdb.dbo.backupset b
  ON m.name = b.database_name 
WHERE m.database_id NOT IN (2,3) 
  AND DATABASEPROPERTYEX(m.name, 'Updateability') <> 'READ_ONLY'
GROUP BY m.name, b.[type] 
HAVING ISNULL(MAX(b.backup_finish_date), GETDATE()-11) > GETDATE() - 10 
  OR MAX(b.backup_finish_date) IS NULL
ORDER BY m.name, backup_finish_date 

You can also use the SSMS built-in report to review a database's backup and restore events:

Navigate to the report

Backup and Restore Report

These scripts will be a good start for you to check your SQL Servers' security and settings. I provided scripts in SQL format for the most checks. This will allow you to put it all together and create your own report for all these checks.

Next Steps
  • Run the scripts on multiple servers using Central Management Server as in this tip.
  • Fix found issues.
  • Save results for the auditors.
  • Modify provided scripts to find other issues (for example, logins with server level permissions only).
  • Read more Auditing and Compliance Tips.


Last Update: 3/7/2013


About the author
MSSQLTips author Svetlana Golovko
Svetlana Golovko is a DBA with 13 years of the IT experience (including SQL Server and Oracle) with main focus on performance.

View all my tips
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Comments and Feedback:
Thursday, March 07, 2013 - 2:28:30 PM - Nahid Read The Tip

 What a great collection of code handy to any DBA level. Well done . thanks

 

 


Thursday, March 07, 2013 - 6:06:44 PM - Svetlana Golovko Read The Tip

Thank you, Nahid.


Monday, March 18, 2013 - 6:48:05 AM - Srinivas Read The Tip

 

Excellent Post Svetlana. Very helpful code(s) provided for all DBA's


Monday, March 18, 2013 - 7:25:12 PM - Svetlana Golovko Read The Tip

Thank you for your feedback, Srinivas. I am pleased that other DBAs find it helpful.

 


Tuesday, April 09, 2013 - 5:38:02 AM - Anil Read The Tip

Dear Svetlana,

Great Job, Those are really awesome and worthful. Great Post. and small request from me, please post Various DMV's and how they are useful in our regular DBA Job Operations.


Tuesday, April 09, 2013 - 9:02:47 PM - Svetlana Golovko Read The Tip

Hi Anil,

There are great "DMV a Day Series" by Glenn Berry here: http://sqlserverperformance.wordpress.com/2010/05/02/recap-of-april-2010-dmv-a-day-series/.

 


Wednesday, April 10, 2013 - 10:39:16 AM - James Lawrence Read The Tip

Very useful information. Thanks for putting this all together! I will definitely use these...


Wednesday, July 10, 2013 - 2:39:54 PM - aMSdeveloper Read The Tip

We all are requested to do many things in our day to day jobs but if only we all could collaborate and share information like in this post, we could be so much more better at what we do. Long story short, Thanks for posting this amazing and useful information. Very useful, and this is exactly what I was looking for.


Monday, January 20, 2014 - 6:19:08 AM - Brascon Read The Tip

 

Thank you very much Svetlana Golovko, this is really helpfull for new DBA as me, i am having an issue, we are using sql 2008 standard and i can not enable auditing, there i d like to audit the users account in the sysadmin role, some users get removed now and then, i would like to track who is removing the users, can you please assist me, much appreciated. Regars


Friday, January 24, 2014 - 8:23:54 PM - Svetlana Golovko Read The Tip

Hi Brascon,

 

You can setup server side trace similar to this:http://www.mssqltips.com/sqlservertip/1035/sql-server-performance-statistics-using-a-server-side-trace/

Just add different events when set events with sp_trace_setevent (for example "Audit Add DB User Event").


Tuesday, July 15, 2014 - 10:46:30 AM - kumar Read The Tip

The best site for MSSQL. I always prefer this for my cross reference.. Appriciated your hardwork Svetlana.




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