Python String Function Examples - Concatenate, Split, Replace, Upper, Lower

By:   |   Updated: 2024-05-02   |   Comments   |   Related: > Python


How do you work with strings in Python programming? What built-in functions are available? What is the syntax? How can I get started as a beginner?


Working with strings is essential in programming code in any language. You might need to print specific outputs, give instructions and take user inputs. Let's explore how we work with strings in Python.

Suppose you have two variables that store the first_name and last_name, as seen below.

  • first_name: Virat
  • last_name: Kohli

Print Single Line Strings in Python

Let's start with an introductory message we want to print in Python. The message is "Virat Kohli is a famous cricketer." You can use a print() statement for the message.

print(first_name,last_name,'is a famous cricketer')

As shown below, by default, print statements add space between strings.

print() statement

Now, let's change the message a bit. You need to print the message below.

  • 'Virat Kohli' is a famous cricketer.

You can use the print statement below. In this method, we use a concatenate operator (+) and enclose the single quote within the double quotes to print the single quote.

print(" ' " + first_name + " "+ last_name + " ' " + "is a famous cricketer")
print() statement with concatenate operator (+)

Alternatively, Python provides a print(f" ") statement for the formatted strings. This method is commonly known as F-Strings. Here, we use variable names inside the curly brackets {}

For our requirement, the F-string code is as follows. It uses double quotes to enclose the single quote string.

print(f" '{first_name} {last_name}' is a famous cricketer")
print(f� �) statement

Let's take another example that prints the message below:

  • "Virat Kohli" is a famous cricketer.

To print this message, we can use the single quotes to enclose the double quotes, as shown below.

print(f' "{first_name} {last_name}" is a famous cricketer')
print (f) statement with single quotes to enclose the double quotes

What if the requirement is to print the string as "Virat Kohli" is a 'famous' cricketer?

We can use triple-double or triple-single quotes like the one below for this requirement.

print(f""" "{first_name} {last_name}" is a 'famous' cricketer""")
print(f''' "{first_name} {last_name}" is a 'famous' cricketer''')
print (f) statement with triple-double or triple-single quotes

Print Multi-line Strings in Python

Sometimes, you might need to print a long sentence that requires several lines. To print these lines, you can use the following methods.

Triple Single Quotes

My Name is Rajendra 
You are learning Python ''')
triple single quotes

Triple-Double Quotes

My Name is Rajendra 
You are learning Python """)
triple double quotes

Parentheses and Single/Double Quotes

print("Hi \n"
"My Name is Rajendra \n"
"You are learning Python")
parentheses and single/double quotes

Dynamic Inputs (User Input) in Python

You can use the input() function to get a user input.

For example, once you run the code below, it asks you to enter the value for the name variable.

name = input()
input() function

But if you have multiple inputs from the user, it isn't easy to understand which parameter you are passing the value. Therefore, the input() function also provides functionality to print labels, as shown below.

name = input('Enter your name :')
input() function

Let's look at another example of user input of two numbers.

num1 = input('Enter the number 1: ')
num2 = input('Enter the number 2: ')
print(num1 + num2)

If we run this code with the num1 value as 5 and the num2 value as 2, it gives the following output. It did not perform addition. Instead, it concatenated the inputs. Why?

input() function with numbers

By default, the input function treats the user inputs as strings. We can verify it by checking the type of input values.

num1 = input('Enter the number 1: ')
num2 = input('Enter the number 2: ')
print(type(num1), type(num2))
input() function with numbers

We need to convert the data type from a string to an int to perform the mathematical operation on the inputted data.

num1 = input('Enter the number 1: ')
num2 = input('Enter the number 2: ')
num1 = int(num1)
num2 = int(num2)
print(num1 + num2)
input() function with numbers

Similarly, if you give the input as a float, you must convert the values like the ones below before performing mathematical operations.

num1 = input('Enter the number 1: ')
num2 = input('Enter the number 2: ')
num1 = float(num1)
num2 = float(num2)
print(num1 + num2)
input() function with numbers and mathematic operation

String Formatting Functions

Upper Function

Python upper() function converts all string characters into upper case.

name = "rajendra gupta"
Upper Function

Lower Function

Python lower() function converts all string characters into lowercase.

Lower Function

Capitalize Function

This function converts the first character of a string into upper case.

Capitalize Function

Title Function

This function converts the first letter of all words of a string into uppercase.

name = "you are LEARNING PYTHON on mssqltips"
Title Function

Strip Function

The Python strip function removes any leading and trailing characters in the given string. By default, it removes the leading and trailing whitespace.

name = "              you are LEARNING PYTHON on mssqltips"
Strip Function

You can specify a character to remove from the string using the strip function.

Suppose we want to remove the characters ab from the given string:

  • It removes the characters from the left side until it gets a mismatch. The example below removes characters ab until the first mismatch c occurs.
  • It removes characters from the right side until it gets a mismatch. In the example below, it removes character ab until the first mismatch h occurs.

Note: It does not remove any character after a mismatch. Therefore, you get the output string with the character ab.

str = "abab cdef ab gh ab"
Strip Function

If you want to remove characters from the left side only, use the lstrip function.

str = "abab cdef ab gh ab"
Lstrip Function

Similarly, use the rstrip function to remove characters from the right side.

str = "abab cdef ab gh ab"
Rstrip Function

Split Function

It splits the Python strings based on the specified delimiter. By default, Python considers a space as a delimiter.

string = "Rajendra Gupta"
name = string.split()
Split Function

You can specify the delimiter, such as a comma, in the split function.

string = "John,Ross,Michael"
names = string.split(",")
Split Function

Replace Function

The replace() function replaces occurrences of a substring from a string with another substring.

string = "John Wichael"
new_string = string.replace("Wichael", "Michael")
Replace Function
Next Steps
  • Stay tuned for more Python tutorials in the upcoming tips.
  • Explore existing SQL Server Python tips on MSSQLTips.

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About the author
MSSQLTips author Rajendra Gupta Rajendra Gupta is a Consultant DBA with 14+ years of extensive experience in database administration including large critical OLAP, OLTP, Reporting and SharePoint databases.

This author pledges the content of this article is based on professional experience and not AI generated.

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Article Last Updated: 2024-05-02

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