SQL Server

By:   |   Updated: 2024-04-04   |   Comments (14)   |   Related: More > Professional Development Career Planning


I am new to SQL Server and have heard the term used in various capacities and contexts. So, what exactly is it? What are the common components? How does it work? How do people use it? Being new to the technology, where do I get started?


What is Microsoft SQL Server

SQL Server is a relational database engine from Microsoft that has supported business applications for decades. Over time the Microsoft SQL Server relational database management system (RDBMS) has grown to include several new technologies including the items listed below. SQL Server 2022 is the latest version.

In addition to running SQL Server on-premises, you also have the following cloud options:

  • Azure - Public cloud offering from Microsoft
  • Azure SQL MI - Azure SQL Managed Instance is an offering from Microsoft where there are shared responsibilities for daily management
  • Azure SQL Database - Public single database as a service offering from Microsoft
  • Microsoft Fabric - Cloud based end to end unified data analytics platform
  • AWS EC2 - Amazon Web Services Elastic Compute Cloud is a public cloud offering from Amazon
  • AWS RDS - Amazon Web Services Relational Database Service is a public cloud offering from Amazon including managed services
  • GCP - Google Cloud Platform for SQL Server

With this basic set of products outlined, let's define what SQL Server is used for and who uses it. SQL Server is a large suite of products and this tip will try to cover the basic concepts with URLs for additional information. It is intended to serve as a stepping stone to learn SQL Server.

Microsoft SQL Server Database Engine

SQL Server Download

SQL Server can be downloaded from Microsoft and installed based on your licensing agreement.

  • SQL Server Evaluation edition can be used for free for 180 days to evaluate SQL Server.
  • SQL Server Developer edition can be downloaded and used for free in non-production environments.
  • SQL Server Express edition can be downloaded and used for free.

Install SQL Server

SQL Server includes an installation wizard to complete the installation process for the main products as well as the Cumulative Updates (CU). Check out these installation guides:

SQL Server Database Engine

The relational engine is most often referred to as 'SQL Server' in most DBA, Developer, IT and Business circles. The purpose of the relational engine is to store and manage SQL Server data as well as secure data and code through security permissions, to meet broad business needs. At a high level, SQL Server is installed on a Windows Server or Linux Server. SQL Server is managed by a set of services that can be started, stopped, paused or disabled. The two primary services are the SQL Server service (database engine) and SQL Server Agent (scheduling and notification).

SQL Server Database

A SQL Server database is a logical container for storing data and securing objects. Permissions can be assigned at the database, role and object levels. Generally, a single database can support one or more business application and a SQL Server instance has numerous user defined and system databases.

There are two types of databases. First, are system databases (such as Master, Model, MSDB, TempDB and ResourceDB)) that are installed by default with each installation and are used to manage SQL Server. Second, are user defined databases that a DBA\Developer would build to support an application need by the business. The user defined databases are the first place you should start learning about SQL Server. Most of your time will be spent working on applications using user defined databases.

The SQL Server database is comprised of tables (SSMS or T-SQL), code, indexes, security, etc. Each table has rows and columns storing the data. The most common coding objects are stored procedures, views, functions, referential integrity, triggers, etc. Indexes are built on tables to improve the access to the data. Security is established to configure access to data and/or execute particular commands.

Check out this tip on how to Create a SQL Server Database using SQL Server Management Studio.

SQL Server Database Files

On to the physical side of the database. SQL Server databases typically have two files when they are built. First is the database file which typically has an extension of MDF. This stores all of the objects (i.e. tables, views, stored procedures, etc.) associated with the database. Second is the transaction log file which usually has an extension of LDF. At a high level, the transaction log is responsible for storing versions of the data before and after the changes to maintain data integrity. As databases grow, they can include additional data files (*.NDF files) as well as additional transaction log files. However, this is not a configuration to be concerned about when learning SQL Server.

Additional SQL Server Features

This explanation is intentionally at a high level because SQL Server is such a large product. Still, we would be remiss not to include additional key components of the relational engine:

  • Backup and Restore - Ability to issue backups and restores of the databases as needed for disaster recovery purposes
  • Full Text Search - Ability to create a catalog to improve complex free form querying
  • Service Broker - Queuing based technology internal to the database engine
  • Availability Groups - High availability tool to maintain multiple copies of a complete database
  • Replication - Ability to replicate a portion of a database to multiple SQL Servers
  • Maintenance - Ability to rebuild indexes, statistics, etc. to improve data access and performance

What is the Most Common SQL Server Tool?

SQL Server Management Studio (SSMS) would be the tool for administering and developing new databases. Here are a few SSMS resources to start with:

SQL Server Agent Overview

SQL Server Agent is the second SQL Server service we will outline relative to the SQL Server engine. Its primary responsibility is scheduling Jobs to execute particular operations at specific points in time. SQL Server Agent can also notify operators based on specific errors, Job failures or business conditions.

SQL Server Programming Languages

The primary programming language in SQL Server is called Transact-SQL or T-SQL. SQL is an abbreviation for structured query language and can be divided into two broad categories. First is DDL or data definition language. These commands are to CREATE, ALTER and DROP database objects such as tables, views, functions, indexes, etc. Second is DML, which is an acronym for data manipulation language. These commands are primarily SELECT, INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE and MERGE. This portion of the language is where programming logic like IF, IF...ELSE, WHILE, etc. would be used.

T-SQL is the most widely used language for DBAs\Developers and probably the best place to start learning SQL Server. However, SQL Server does support other programming languages internal to the database engine and in some cases, these languages are preferred. Here is a brief explanation:

  • T-SQL - Perform data retrieval, additions, updates and removals
  • DAX - Programming language for SSAS Tabular Models
  • BIML - Markup language to automate the creation of SSIS Packages
  • Python - High-level interpreted programming language for general-purpose programming with many libraries for data science
  • R - Open source programming language used for statistical computing, statistical graphics and data science
  • CLR or Common Language Runtime which extends executing compiled .NET code directly from the database engine.
  • LINQ is a set of extensions to the .NET Framework that encompasses language-integrated query, set and transform operations. It extends C# and VB with native language syntax for queries and provides class libraries to take advantage of these capabilities, available only in the .NET Framework. (Source - Introduction to Language Integrated Query (LINQ))
  • SMO is an acronym for SQL Server Management Objects which has an object hierarchy built on the .NET Framework. Check out this tip - Getting started with SQL Server Management Objects (SMO).
  • PowerShell has gained a great deal of popularity recently with Network, System and Database Administrators since its introduction in 2006. It is also built on the .NET Framework and leverages SMO when working with SQL Server objects directly.

SQL Server Business Intelligence - On-Premises

SSIS Overview

In a nutshell, Integration Services is a engine for performing data extraction, transformation and loading (ETL) for a data warehouse. This is a complicated way of saying moving data from one location to another. The locations can be SQL Server databases, flat files or other database platforms such as Oracle, DB2, Access, Sybase, PostgreSQL, cloud, etc. The SQL Server Integration Services development is conducted inside of Visual Studio.

Visual Studio offers a feature rich development tool to efficiently manage the code, change management, error handling, etc. The Integration Services Package can be executed directly or scheduled with SQL Server Agent. Although Integration Services offers a very feature rich solution, you may encounter other T-SQL commands that also meet the ETL needs of many organizations to include BCP, BULK INSERT, OPENROWSET, etc. Keep in mind Integration Services is a separate installation option when you install SQL Server.

Check out the SQL Server Integration Services Tutorial as a stepping stone to learning the technology. Once you have worked through the tutorial, review the SQL Server Integration Services tips.

SSRS Overview

Reporting Services provides report authoring (development), rendering and management features. In many environments, Reporting Services is installed on a separate SQL Server to handle only reporting needs. Keep in mind Reporting Services is a separate installation option when you install SQL Server. During the installation process, new SQL Server programs are installed in addition to two databases to support the report metadata and temporary objects. After the installation, configurations are needed to access the report metadata and to setup features to email, encrypt the data, etc.

Check out the SQL Server Reporting Services Tutorial as a stepping stone to learning the technology. Once you have worked through the tutorial, explore the SQL Server Reporting Services tips.

SSAS Overview

Historically, Analysis Services was the primary business intelligence tool in SQL Server. Analysis Services provides the means to build and query multi-dimensional data and more recently Tabular data format. Analysis Services and the relational engine have a number of parallel concepts. Both have databases, programming languages, security, backup and recovery features, etc. The key concept with Analysis Services are cubes. If you are a visual person, you can think of cubes as a very large "Rubik's Cube" with a number of different ways to access the data to determine trends, opportunities, etc.

Analysis Services is a separate installation option like Integration Services and Reporting Services.

Here are some tips to begin learning about Analysis Services:

Power BI and SQL Server

Power BI has taken the SQL Server community by storm with a simple and intuitive means to report on data from on-premises and cloud based applications:

  1. Gain access to data from a variety of data sources
  2. Consolidate the data analysis into a single report
  3. Numerous visualization options to best tell the data's story
  4. Combine reports to form dashboards
  5. Distribute, secure and manage data

Start learning about Power BI:

SQL Server in the Cloud

SQL Server in the Cloud introduces a number of different options (virtual machines, instances, databases, ETL, data warehousing, reporting, docker, hadoop, kubernetes, etc.) that offer a variety of features, flexibility and costs to organizations. The popular public cloud offerings are from Microsoft, Amazon and Google. Check out the following resources to get started:

SQL Server Versions and Editions

SQL Server Versions

Regarding SQL Server's history, the product started in the 1990's in collaboration with Sybase, which did not run on the Windows operating system. Microsoft ported the code to Windows and started gaining popularity with version 6.0 and 6.5. Microsoft made numerous updates to stabilize the platform in version 7.0 in the late 1990s then released SQL Server 2000 and 2005 in the early 2000s laying the ground work for many of the current features. Today, the following versions are generally used by organizations:

Also, Microsoft periodically releases Cumulative Updates and Service Packs to add new functionality to the SQL Server platform as well as to correct known issues.

For a complete picture of the SQL Server versions check out - How to tell what SQL Server version you are running.

SQL Server Editions

SQL Server includes the following editions:

  • Enterprise - Includes all features to scale for the most demanding environments and the most expensive licensing option
  • Standard - The most common edition of SQL Server used in production environments, with less functionality than the Enterprise edition and with lower licensing costs
  • Web - Only offered by hosting companies for cloud based installations with functionality akin to the Standard edition
  • Developer - Only licensed for development usage, but includes all Enterprise edition features
  • Evaluation - Intended only for evaluation purposes for a 180 day period and includes all Enterprise edition features
  • Express - Free edition of SQL Server with limited capabilities

Check out this tip for Deciding Between Editions of SQL Server for Production.

Which Version Should I use to Get Started with SQL Server?

While learning SQL Server, I would recommend downloading one of the following:

  • Evaluation Edition - Fully functional version of the Enterprise edition for 180 days
  • Developer Edition - Enterprise edition functionality, that is not licensed for production use
  • SQL Server Express Edition - Relational Database Engine with limitations on CPU, Memory, Database Size, etc., but available for production usage

SQL Server Professionals

In reality more people work with SQL Server in their day to day tasks than anyone probably realizes. Many websites and core business applications are supported by SQL Server. Typically SQL Server based applications are designed, built, maintained and enhanced by DBAs, Developers, Data Modelers, Network Admins, System Admins, Storage Admins, etc. In a business setting, users interact with SQL Server in the following ways:

  • Core Business applications - CRM, ERP, Accounting, etc.
    • Web and desktop
  • SharePoint apps
  • Data Warehousing
  • Reporting apps
  • Decision support applications
  • Dashboards and scorecards
  • IOT devices

SQL Server Career Development Tips

Next Steps
  • This overview is intended as a stepping stone to learning SQL Server. If you are new to SQL Server, check out the URLs for the particular section of tips that is of most interest to you.
  • If you still have questions about SQL Server or need help figuring out the next steps in your learning process, please post your comments below.
  • As you learn SQL Server return to MSSQLTips to expand your knowledge.

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About the author
MSSQLTips author Jeremy Kadlec Jeremy Kadlec is a Co-Founder, Editor and Author at MSSQLTips.com with more than 300 contributions. He is also the CTO @ Edgewood Solutions and a six-time SQL Server MVP. Jeremy brings 20+ years of SQL Server DBA and Developer experience to the community after earning a bachelor's degree from SSU and master's from UMBC.

This author pledges the content of this article is based on professional experience and not AI generated.

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Article Last Updated: 2024-04-04

Comments For This Article

Friday, April 28, 2023 - 2:54:31 PM - Charmelin Back To Top (91139)
Hi, in my research I came across this platform which I find very interesting. I need advice and guidance to get started in SQL Server for data analysis purposes. What do I need to know in terms of training, tools and other things. thank you for your help

Tuesday, March 28, 2023 - 3:31:40 PM - David Gwyn Smith Back To Top (91059)
Excellent article.

Friday, March 3, 2023 - 5:55:31 AM - otties Back To Top (90977)
Always enjoy reading sql server tips . Section sql version etc needs to be updated. the latest version is 2022.


Wednesday, December 2, 2020 - 12:18:36 AM - Davood Taherkhani Back To Top (87869)
that's great

davood taherkhani

Thursday, May 29, 2014 - 8:11:22 AM - K SANTHOSH Back To Top (31985)






Wednesday, May 8, 2013 - 8:19:48 AM - Shruthi Back To Top (23808)


Thankyou so much, this is an excellent package especially for the beginners..



Monday, April 8, 2013 - 10:29:25 AM - Jeremy Kadlec Back To Top (23232)


At this point in time, I think you need to start branching out into new portions of the database engine based on what you enjoy.  I would take some time to think about what you enjoy and then build a plan around that.  If you still feel you have not been exposed to the full SQL Server stack, I would try to get exposure to those portions of the engine and re-assess your situation.


Thank you,
Jeremy Kadlec
Community Co-Leader

Monday, April 8, 2013 - 9:42:51 AM - Ritesh Aggarwal Back To Top (23229)


I am new to SQL Server.I know the SQL DML,DDL queries and i had run that all queris in the database.

My Question is i want to know that after Learning and running all SQL queirs in a database what is the next step that should i do or start to learn more and perform better in SQL server 2008 R2.

Kindly help me..List me the content step by step to Learn it and get a job at intermediate level in SQL Server.

Please do revert back...


Thanking You


Friday, October 5, 2012 - 10:43:46 AM - Jeremy Kadlec Back To Top (19802)


Thank you for the feedback.  Let me get this updated for SQL Server 2012 and include that update.

Thank you,
Jeremy Kadlec 

Thursday, October 4, 2012 - 8:13:41 AM - Tony Sutcliffe Back To Top (19787)


I would also say that I think this is a well structured article and an excellent introduction to SQL server.

You make the comment that "Databases typically have 2 files when they are built"; although this is correct, I feel that it might be worth highlighting that the first file is the "Primary Data File" and that there can be a number of "Secondary Data Files" in addition. It would also be worth then linking that through to articles on why and when people might want to consider using multiple secondary files.

Tuesday, August 21, 2012 - 8:19:00 PM - Jeremy Kadlec Back To Top (19154)


Thank you for the feedback.  Until we are able to update the tip, I would encourage you to review these tips - http://www.mssqltips.com/sql-server-tip-category/111/express-edition/.

Thank you,
Jeremy Kadlec

Tuesday, August 21, 2012 - 7:05:33 PM - Gene Wirchenko Back To Top (19153)

Please revise this tutorial to include what is included in the Express versions and what is not.

Friday, April 27, 2012 - 2:12:17 PM - Jeremy Kadlec Back To Top (17163)


Thank you for the positive feedback.  If you have any other aspects of SQL Server you could use some clarifications on please let us know here - http://www.mssqltips.com/feedback.asp.

Thank you,
Jeremy Kadlec

Thursday, April 26, 2012 - 6:51:12 PM - Reed Back To Top (17143)

This was a great article. Thanks for speaking the lay person's language to get me started.

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